Đây là giai đoạn các thanh thiếu niên phát triển và thay đổi rõ rệt cách suy nghĩ, cảm nhận về bản thân và tương tác với mọi người. Trẻ gái đa phần dậy thì hoàn chỉnh, các trẻ trai thì vẫn đang trải qua giai đoạn thay đổi thể chất. Trẻ có thể lo lắng về kích thước cơ thể, hình dáng hoặc cân nặng. Rối loạn ăn uống có thể xảy ra ở trẻ em gái.

Trong thời gian này, trẻ đang phát triển cá tính và quan điểm riêng. Mối quan hệ với bạn bè vẫn quan trọng, nhưng trẻ sẽ có những mối quan tâm khác khi phát triển ý thức rõ ràng hơn về bản thân. Đây cũng là thời điểm quan trọng để dạy trẻ sự độc lập và tinh thần trách nhiệm; nhiều thanh thiếu niên quan tâm đến việc làm thêm hoặc muốn tách ra ở riêng khi vào đại học.

Thay Đổi Tâm Lý Xã Hội

Children in this age group might:

  • Have more interest in romantic relationships and sexuality.
  • Go through less conflict with parents.
  • Show more independence from parents.
  • Have a deeper capacity for caring and sharing and for developing more intimate relationships.
  • Spend less time with parents and more time with friends.
  • Feel a lot of sadness or depression, which can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, and other problems.

Suy Nghĩ và Học Hỏi

Children in this age group might:

  • Learn more defined work habits.
  • Show more concern about future school and work plans.
  • Be better able to give reasons for their own choices, including about what is right or wrong.

An Toàn Là Trên Hết

You play an important role in keeping your child safe―no matter how old he or she is. Here are a few ways to help protect your child:

  • Talk with your teen about the dangers of driving and how to be safe on the road. You can steer your teen in the right direction. “Parents Are the Key” has steps that can help. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death from unintentional injury among teens, yet few teens take measures to reduce their risk of injury.
  • Remind your teen to wear a helmet when riding a bike, motorcycle, or all-terrain vehicle. Unintentional injuries resulting from participation in sports and other activities are common.
  • Talk with your teen about suicide and pay attention to warning signs. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 15 through 24 years of age.
  • Talk with your teen about the dangers of drugs, drinking, smoking, and risky sexual activity. Ask him what he knows and thinks about these issues, and share your feelings with him. Listen to what he says and answer his questions honestly and directly.
  • Discuss with your teen the importance of choosing friends who do not act in dangerous or unhealthy ways.
  • Know where your teen is and whether a responsible adult is present. Make plans with her for when she will call you, where you can find her, and what time you expect her home.

Nuôi Dạy Con Tích Cực

Following are some things you, as a parent, can do to help your teen during this time:

  • Talk with your teen about her concerns and pay attention to any changes in her behavior. Ask her if she has had suicidal thoughts, particularly if she seems sad or depressed. Asking about suicidal thoughts will not cause her to have these thoughts, but it will let her know that you care about how she feels. Seek professional help if necessary.
  • Show interest in your teen’s school and extracurricular interests and activities and encourage him to become involved in activities such as sports, music, theater, and art.
  • Encourage your teen to volunteer and become involved in civic activities in her community.
  • Compliment your teen and celebrate his efforts and accomplishments.
  • Show affection for your teen. Spend time together doing things you enjoy.
  • Respect your teen’s opinion. Listen to her without playing down her concerns.
  • Encourage your teen to develop solutions to problems or conflicts. Help your teenager learn to make good decisions. Create opportunities for him to use his own judgment, and be available for advice and support.
  • If your teen engages in interactive internet media such as games, chat rooms, and instant messaging, encourage her to make good decisions about what she posts and the amount of time she spends on these activities.
  • If your teen works, use the opportunity to talk about expectations, responsibilities, and other ways of behaving respectfully in a public setting.
  • Talk with your teen and help him plan ahead for difficult or uncomfortable situations. Discuss what he can do if he is in a group and someone is using drugs or under pressure to have sex, or is offered a ride by someone who has been drinking.
  • Respect your teen’s need for privacy.
  • Encourage your teen to get enough sleep and exercise, and to eat healthy, balanced meals.

Cơ Thể Khoẻ Mạnh

  • Encourage your teen to get enough sleep and physical activity, and to eat healthy, balanced meals. Make sure your teen gets 1 hour or more of physical activity each day.
  • Keep television sets out of your teen’s bedroom. Set limits for screen time, including cell phones, computers, video games, and other devices and develop a family media plan.external icon
  • Encourage your teen to have meals with the family. Eating together will help your teen make better choices about the foods she eats, promote healthy weight, and give family members time to talk with each other. In addition, a teen who eats meals with the family is more likely to get better grades and less likely to smoke, drink, or use drugs, and also less likely to get into fights, think about suicide, or engage in sexual activity.
  • Make sure your child gets the recommended amount of sleep each night: For teenagers 13-18 years, 8–10 hours per 24 hours (including naps)

Là cha mẹ, bạn mang đến cho con mình một khởi đầu tốt đẹp trong cuộc sống — bạn nuôi dưỡng, bảo vệ và hướng dẫn con. 

Nuôi dạy con cái là một quá trình chuẩn bị cho con bạn sự độc lập. Khi con bạn lớn lên và phát triển, bạn có thể làm nhiều điều để giúp con mình. Những liên kết này sẽ giúp bạn tìm hiểu thêm về sự phát triển của con bạn, cách nuôi dạy con tích cực, sự an toàn và sức khỏe ở mỗi giai đoạn trong cuộc đời của con bạn.

Cách dạy trẻ phát triển trong từng độ tuổi được tập trung chủ yếu vào 5 chủ đề sau:

1. Thay đổi Tâm lý - Xã hội

2. Suy nghĩ và Học hỏi

3. Nuôi dạy con tích cực

4. An toàn là trên hết

5. Cơ thể khỏe mạnh